Common LaTeX Mathematical Symbols

常用 LaTeX 数学符号

2020-09-25 Mike Lyou

This article listed some common $\LaTeX$ mathematical symbols, especially those hard to remember ones. The list may not be as useful for you as for me, since people’s majors varies, but hope it can help you.

Here is the reference of this article, which concludes much more.

If there is any typo or incorrect thing, please tell me. Thank you.

Common Symbols

Greek and Hebrew letters

Symbol LaTeX code
$\varphi$ \varphi
$\varepsilon$ \varepsilon
$\vartheta$ \vartheta
$\eta$ \eta
$\lambda$ \lambda
$\rho$ \rho
$\xi$ \xi
$\chi$ \chi
$\Gamma$ \Gamma
$\Lambda$ \Lambda
$\Xi$ \Xi

Too common letters like $\alpha$, $\beta$ are not listed here.

$\LaTeX$ Math Constructs

Symbol LaTeX code
$\frac{abc}{xyz}$ \frac{abc}{xyz}
$\sqrt{abc}$ \sqrt{abc}
$\sqrt[n]{abc}$ \sqrt[n]{abc}
$\overline{abc}$ \overline{abc}
$\overrightarrow{abc}$ \overrightarrow{abc}
$\overleftarrow{abc}$ \overleftarrow{abc}

Variable-sized symbols (大型运算符)

Symbol LaTeX code Comment
$\sum$ \sum It’s not $\Sigma$ (\Sigma)
$\prod$ \prod It’s not $\Pi$ (\Pi)
$\int$ \int  
$\oint$ \oint  
$\iint$ \iint Can add up to 3 ($\iiint$) and 4 ($\iiiint$)

Standard Function Names

Function names should appear in Roman, not Italic, e.g.,

  • Correct: \sin\theta → $\sin\theta$
  • Incorrect: sin\theta → $sin\theta$
Symbol LaTeX code
$\sin$ \sin
$\exp$ \exp
$\ln$ \ln

Many others are not listed here.

Operation/Relation Symbols

Symbol LaTeX code
$\times$ \times
$\div$ \div
$\cdot $ \cdot
$\ast$ \ast
$\pm$ \pm
$\mp$ \mp
$\bot$ \bot
$\equiv$ \equiv
$\cong$ \cong
$\neq$ \ne or \neq
$\sim$ \sim
$\simeq$ \simeq
$\approx$ \approx
$\propto$ \propto
$\leq$ \leq
$\leqslant$ \leqslant
$\ll$ \ll
$\geq$ \geq
$\geqslant$ \geqslant
$\gg$ \gg
$\because$ \because
$\therefore$ \therefore

Arrow symbols

Symbol LaTeX code
$\leftarrow$ \leftarrow
$\rightarrow$ \rightarrow
$\leftrightarrow$ \leftrightarrow
$\Leftarrow$ \Leftarrow
$\longleftarrow$ \longleftarrow
$\Longleftarrow$ \Longleftarrow

Miscellaneous symbols (杂项符号)

Symbol LaTeX code
$\infty$ \infty
$\nabla$ \nabla
$\partial$ \partial
$\hbar$ \hbar
$\hslash$ \hslash
$\prime$ \prime
$\cdots$ \cdots
$\vdots$ \vdots
$\ddots$ \ddots
$\AA$ \AA (See a note below)
$\mathring{A}$ \mathring{A}
$\LaTeX$ \LaTeX

Note: \AA (as well as \LaTeX) belong to text mode rather than symbols, therefore maybe not work in some environment, e.g. mathjax. The simplest way is use \mathring{A} instead, which looks like $\mathring{A}$.

Math mode accents

Symbol LaTeX code
$\dot{a}$ \dot{a}
$\ddot{a}$ \ddot{a}
$\bar{a}$ \bar{a}
$\hat{a}$ \hat{a}
$\vec{a}$ \vec{a}
$\tilde{a}$ \tilde{a}

Several similar symbol pairs

Symbol LaTeX code Note
$\Sigma$ \Sigma symbol
$\sum$ \sum e.g. $z=\sum_j z_j$
Symbol LaTeX code Note
$\epsilon$ \epsilon Less common
$\varepsilon$ \varepsilon Common used one in mathematics.


Author: Mike Lyou
Liscense: This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA International License.